🎰 Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb

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Request PDF | Forelimb and hind limb loading patterns during below branch quadrupedal locomotion in the two-toed sloth | The living sloths are the most.


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Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that.


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Linnaeus's two-toed sloth (C. didactylus) lives in northern South America east of the Andes and south to the central Amazon basin. Load Previous Page.


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Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that.


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Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that.


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Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that.


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Compressive strength of subchondral bone is particularly revealing of habitual compressive loading in a limb because it serves as the site of force transmission across diarthrodial joints Radin et al. Elements were scanned individually to maximize the accuracy of grey values for each specimen. Vertebrate morphologists often are interested in inferring limb-loading patterns in animals characterized by different locomotor repertoires. J Anat , 6 , 01 Jun Cited by 27 articles PMID: Anat Rec Hoboken , 4 , 13 Feb Cited by 8 articles PMID: Zoology Jena , 4 , 15 Jul Cited by 13 articles PMID: Folia Primatol Basel , 72 4 , 01 Jul Cited by 4 articles PMID: Technol Health Care , 20 5 , 01 Jan Cited by 3 articles PMID: Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Reconstruction of raw CT data used a soft tissue algorithm. When joint surfaces are relatively congruent i. Recent history Saved searches. Open in a separate window.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Distal radii were examined in 33 sloths Choloepus didactylus , Choloepus hoffmanni , Bradypus tridactylus and Bradypus variegatus and anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla , Tamandua mexicana , Tamandua tetradactyla. Specifically, we compare suspensory sloths Bradypus and Choloepus , which probably habitually load FLs in tension, to quadrupedal anteaters Myrmecophaga and Tamandua , which probably habitually load FLs in compression. Others have demonstrated functional and morphological convergences between extant xenarthrans and some non-human primates Mendel ; Orr We also selected xenarthrans because they are phylogenetically distant from primates Springer et al. Behavioural variability of free-ranging animals is probably more dynamic than often modelled in the laboratory, and thus the overall variability in SRFs for any one phylogenetic group e. Material and methods Distal radii were examined in 33 sloths Choloepus didactylus , Choloepus hoffmanni , Bradypus tridactylus and Bradypus variegatus and anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla , Tamandua mexicana , Tamandua tetradactyla. Here, we investigate xenarthrans as an independent test of a previously identified primate trend. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Introduction Apparent density of bone is a primary determinant of its compressive strength both through the amount of mineral i. Free to read. Keywords: functional morphology, quadrupedal, radius, suspensory, wrist. If the relationship between subchondral apparent density patterns and habitual locomotor modes can be extended beyond primates, it may indicate the presence of a broad-scale trend among vertebrates. Functional morphologists could use patterns in apparent density of subchondral bone to evaluate habitual joint loading when experimental data are untenable. Radiodensity of subchondral bone at the distal radial articular surface differed between these two primate locomotor groups. Carlson KJ. Similarity between xenarthran and primate trends suggests broad-scale applicability for analysing subchondral bone apparent density and supports the idea that bone functionally alters its material properties in response to locomotor behaviours. Radii were serially CT scanned GE lightspeed 16; slice thickness, 0. Apparent density of bone is a primary determinant of its compressive strength both through the amount of mineral i. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. If such patterns are found in other mammals, then these relationships would be strengthened further. No live animals were used in this study and all data were obtained from museum specimens. Abstract Free full text 1. Suspensory sloths exhibit relatively smaller areas of high apparent density than quadrupedal anteaters. Additionally, differences in high apparent density areas between xenarthrans and primates could also be a phylogenetic effect i. Although extrapolating behavioural differences from comparisons of bone material properties is not without its share of complexities, these properties still provide valuable insights for biologists interested in structure—function interactions e. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Group differences were evaluated using non-parametric Mann—Whitney U -tests. Introduction 2. Pixels in each bin were counted and calculated as a percentage of the total pixels in the articular surface, although we emphasize only the maximum bin i. Lieberman et al. Compressive loading of a joint is predominantly a function of i joint reaction forces arising from muscle—tendon complexes crossing the joint and ii gravitational forces operating on body mass that is supported through the joint i. Others have noted additional links between locomotor behaviour and bone material properties in the primate postcranial skeleton e. A widely applicable signal also supports the notion that bone modulates its material properties, at least partially according to behavioural activities e. Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs FLs in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that generally load their FLs in compression. In addition, as Biewener has shown for terrestrial mammals, suspensory support may reduce muscle force requirements, and thus compressive bone loading, owing to alignment of the FL and its joints with superstratum reaction forces associated with suspensory support. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry was used to visualize apparent density i. Free full text. Similarities between the locomotor groups that cross phylogenetic boundaries suggest a robust structure—function signal. This locomotor-based pattern is analogous to the pattern observed in suspensory and quadrupedal primates. It is intriguing that xenarthrans in both locomotor groups exhibit relatively more expansive high apparent density areas than those reported in the respective suspensory and quadrupedal primates i. Computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry was used to visualize the patterns in subchondral apparent density. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Published online Jul PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Scale bar, 1 cm. Biol Lett. Boxes, means; whiskers, 1 s. Patel BA 1 ,. The lowest bin white included pixels with minimal radiodensities, while the highest bin black contained pixels with maximal radiodensities figure 1 a. The amount of maximal apparent density in the articular surface of the distal radius is greater in xenarthrans that habitually load their FLs in compression i. The relatively unique primate interlimb SRF pattern could be related to a more posterior location of the centre of mass in primates, or to a dynamic caudal shift of the body weight towards the HL during primate locomotion Reynolds There are caveats, however, to such a scenario. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. Because compressive loading should impact apparent density of subchondral bone, potential differences in locomotor kinetics between xenarthrans and primates may be relevant. Material and methods 3. Demes et al. Read article at publisher's site DOI : Vet Surg , 47 4 , 01 Apr Cited by 1 article PMID: Anat Rec Hoboken , 5 , 09 Jan Cited by: 0 articles PMID: Am J Phys Anthropol , 3 , 22 Apr Cited by 2 articles PMID: J Hum Evol , , 16 Jul Cited by 6 articles PMID: J Morphol , 9 , 20 Jun To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation. Abstract Vertebrate morphologists often are interested in inferring limb-loading patterns in animals characterized by different locomotor repertoires. Brightness values of pixels in the MIP were partitioned into eight distinct colour bins by creating a false colour map. Quadrupedal anteaters Myrmecophaga and Tamandua have expanded areas of high apparent density i. Asian apes habitually restrict compressive forces generated through their wrist to those arising from muscle contractions i. Recent Activity. Primates generally experience lower peak vertical substrate reaction forces SRFs in their FLs relative to their hind limbs HL than most other mammals during linear quadrupedal locomotion on runways and simulated arboreal substrates Demes et al. Because bone apparent density i. Significant differences, however, do not extend to taxa within locomotor groups figure 1 b. By using percentages of total articular surface area, we accounted for size effects body size. Affiliations 1 author 1. Humans do not support body weight through their FLs during locomotion and thus they too will habitually limit compressive forces across the wrist joint to muscle contractile forces. It also would bolster the argument that bone modulates its properties according to functional input e. Considering that both groups probably have strong digital flexor muscles for either digging anteaters or hanging below superstrata sloths , the added weight support by quadrupedal anteaters could be a probable explanation for their increased area of maximal apparent density.